Pigmentation refers to the coloring of the skin. Skin pigmentation disorders cause changes to the color of your skin. Melanin is made by cells in the skin and is the pigment responsible for your skin's color. Hyperpigmentation is a condition that causes your skin to darken. Hyper-pigmentation can have causes that aren't due to underlying disease. Examples include a tattoo, a suntan, tanning lotions or medication side effect Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production.