Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem worldwide despite a declining trend in mortality, with effective diagnosis and treatment. An estimated 10.4 million people developed TB in 2015 and more than half of the TB cases (60%) were seen in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions1. About 60 per cent of TB cases and deaths occur among males, but the disease burden is high among women also1. In 2015 nearly 500,000 women died from TB, and among them, 28 per cent had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection1. Genital TB in females is well recognized as an important aetiological factor for infertility in countries with high prevalence of TB. Genital TB usually occurs secondary to TB in other sites (primarily, the lungs). The spread is generally through haematogenous or lymphatic routes2. Tuberculous infection of the female genital organs can result in infertility, dyspareunia, menstrual irregularities and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)3. Drug therapy for female genital TB (FGTB) is similar to the standard treatment regimens used for pulmonary TB. In patients with infertility, conception rate is not very encouraging after anti-TB treatment (ATT)2. Here we review the epidemiology, clinical presentations, recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of FGTB.
Asstt.Professor,SGRRIM & HS
SKIN & VD & LEPROSY
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